Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) Content Outline

Tests prior to October 15, 2021:

Obstetrics & Gynecology (OB\GYN) Outline
Anatomy and Physiology 25%
Normal Anatomy and Physiology
Assess both adnexa (i.e., ovaries, fallopian tubes)
Assess the endometrium
Assess the uterus (i.e., position, orientation, contour)
Assess the cervix
Assess the cul-de-sacs
Assess patients of reproductive age
Assess postmenopausal patients
Assess premenarcheal patients
Identify structures in the first trimester obstetrical exam at less than 10 weeks (i.e., decidual reaction, gestational sac, yolk sac, embryo)
Identify fetal anatomy in the first trimester obstetrical exam at 10-14 weeks (i.e., calvarium, stomach, cord insertion, extremities)
Identify multiple gestations (i.e., fetal number, chorionicity/amnionicity)
Assess the placenta (i.e., size, location)
Assess the umbilical cord (i.e., insertion into placenta, vessel number)
Assess amnionic fluid volume
Assess fetal lie and presentation
Assess the fetal heart (i.e., axis, chambers, outflow tracts)
Assess the neck
Assess intracranial structures
Assess the facial anatomy (i.e., nose, lips, nasal bones, orbits, profile)
Assess the diaphragm
Assess the thorax (i.e., thymus, lungs)
Assess the abdomen (i.e., gallbladder, stomach, liver)
Assess the skeletal system (e.g., cranial contour, long bones evaluation, ribs, vertebrae, skull, spine)
Assess the ankles and feet
Assess the hands/fingers
Assess the genitalia
Pathology 41%
Abnormal Physiology and Perfusion
Identify adnexal pathology other than ovarian
Identify ovarian pathology
Identify endometrial pathology (i.e., polyps, hyperplasia)
Identify uterine masses (e.g., leiomyomas, sarcomas)
Identify Müllerian duct developmental anomalies (e.g., septated, subseptate, bicornuate, unicornis uterus)
Identify adenomyosis
Identify cervical pathology (e.g., polyps)
Identify free fluid in the pelvis
Identify vaginal pathology (e.g., imperforated hymen)
Identify maternal pelvic pathology
Congenital Anomalies
Assess multiple gestations (e.g., conjoined twins, acardiac twin, twin to twin transfusion syndrome, discordance)
Identify abnormal multiple gestations
Identify molar degeneration
Identify ectopic pregnancy
Identify embryonic/fetal demise
Identify anembryonic pregnancy
Identify abnormal trisomy (e.g., 13, 18, 21)
Identify abnormal congenital anomalies
Identify abnormal amniotic fluid volume
Identify abnormal fetal growth
Identify abnormal yolk sac
Identify abnormal central nervous system anomaly (e.g., anencephaly, acrania, hydranencephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, encephalocele)
Identify abnormal intracranial structures (e.g., choroid plexus cyst)
Identify a thickened nuchal translucency
Identify abnormal face (i.e., nose/ lips, orbits, profile)
Identify abnormal neck (e.g., goiter, cystic hygroma)
Identify abnormal fetal heart (e.g., axis, chambers, outflow tracts)
Identify abnormal diaphragm
Identify abnormal thorax
Identify abnormal abdomen (e.g., gallbladder, stomach, liver)
Identify abnormal abdominal wall defect (e.g., omphalocele, gastroschisis)
Identify abnormal umbilical cord (e.g., insertion, vessels)
Identify abnormal gastrointestinal system (e.g., echogenic bowel, duodenal atresia, bowel obstruction, esophageal atresia, cysts)
Identify abnormal genitourinary system (e.g., hydronephrosis, cystic renal dysplasia, hydroureter, renal agenesis, bladder outlet obstruction, ureterocele, abnormal genitalia, ovarian cyst)
Identify abnormal genitalia
Identify abnormal skeletal system (e.g., skull, spine)
Identify abnormal ankles and feet (e.g., club feet, polydactyly)
Identify abnormal hands/fingers
Placental Abnormalities
Identify previa
Identify vasa previa
Identify subchorionic hemorrhage
Identify abruption
Identify accreta, increta, percreta
Identify infarction
Identify abnormal membrane/insertion shape (i.e., circumvallate)
Identify accessory lobe
Identify masses (e.g., chorioangioma)
Protocols 25%
Clinical Standards and Guidelines
Obtain pertinent clinical history as a part of the exam
Correlate previous exams
Review lab results as a part of the exam (e.g., hCG levels, CA 125)
Perform quality assurance checks on the equipment
Perform transabdominal technique
Perform transvaginal technique
Perform translabial technique
Measurement Techniques
Measure endometrium thickness
Measure ovarian dimensions
Measure uterine dimensions
Measure cervical length
Perform biophysical profiles
Measure amniotic fluid (i.e., amniotic fluid index, deepest pocket)
Measure crown rump length
Measure mean sac diameter
Measure the yolk sac
Measure biparietal diameter
Measure biparietal diameter corrected
Measure head circumference
Measure cisterna magnum
Measure cerebellum
Measure transverse cerebellar diameter
Measure cerebral lateral ventricle
Measure cephalic index
Measure nuchal translucency in first trimester
Measure nuchal fold between 15 and 20 weeks' gestation
Measure orbital, intraorbital and outer orbital diameters
Measure nasal bone
Measure abdomen circumference
Measure humerus length
Measure femur length
Measure other long bones (e.g., radius, ulna, tibia)
Physics and Instrumentation 8%
Assess ovarian vasculature with Doppler
Assess the uterine arteries with Doppler
Assess arteriovenous malformations using Doppler
Assess embryonic and/or fetal heart rate and rhythm with M-mode
Assess the middle cerebral artery with Doppler
Assess the ductus venosus
Assess fetal heart rate using Doppler
Assess the umbilical cord vessels with Doppler
Imaging Instruments
Apply M-mode
Apply color flow imaging
Apply power (angio, amplitude) Doppler
Apply pulsed spectral Doppler
Apply harmonics
Perform 3-D imaging
Apply knowledge of artifacts
Treatment 1%
Sonographer Role in Procedures
Provide guidance for sonohysterography
Provide guidance for amniocentesis after 15 weeks
Provide guidance for chorionic villus sampling

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